Validation Information:

[table border="1" colwidth="115"]


Contained by:,<add>|<back>|<body>|<date>|<del>|<div>|<floatingText>|<front>|<head>|<hi>|<l>|<lg>|<metamark>|<note>|<num>|<p>|<restore>|<sic>|<sp>|<speaker>|<stage>|<stamp>|<unclear>

May contain:,<add>|<anchor/>|<choice>|<date>|<del>|<delSpan/>|<floatingText>|<hi>|<l>|<lb/>|<lg>|<metamark>|<note>|<num>|<p>|<pb/>|<restore>|<seg>|<sic>|<stage>|<stamp>|<sp>|<unclear>

What is it?

The <metamark> element contains a graphic or written sign, that indicates how the text should be written (rather than forming part of the actual text). This includes 'stet'-markings (as a way of undoing a cancelation – see also <restore>), or letters or other signs that indicate where a piece of text (e.g. written on the facing leaf) should be inserted.


We only use the @function attribute for metamarks that are pagenumbers. In those cases, the @function="pagenumber", and the page number itself should be surrounded by <num> tags. For more information, see the <num> element.

What to do with…

words, letters, numbers, etc.

If the <metamark> consists of readable words (or letters), those words should be transcribed within the <metamark> tags.

For example:

[xml] <seg>assented at last to an old <del><restore>thing</restore></del>


If the <metamark> consists of a symbol rather than of words, letters, or numbers, the corresponding entity should be transcribed within the <metamark> tags. A good example of this type of metamark is the 'deleatur' – a sign that proofreaders use to indicate passages that are to be deleted from the proofs.  In Beckett's manuscripts, you'll sometimes see this sign in this form:

For example:

Because the typographical sign used to represent this proofreading symbol is the 'deleatur' or '', we transcribe it as follows:

[xml] <metamark>&#8368;<metamark>[/xml]

In Beckett's case, the most common <metamark> is an insertion mark that looks like this:

After a long search (and after reading an especially useful article on the matter by Jacques André), we've found found the right entity for it. It's called the 'caret insertion point', and the entity that represents it is: &#8257;. So the sign is transcribed as follows:

[xml] <metamark>&#8257;</metamark>[/xml]

For more information on which entities to use to represent which symbols, see 'Entities'.


Finally, most <metamark>s should also be accompanied by an explanatory <note>.

For example:

[xml] <metamark>&#10003;</metamark> <note> There is a tick in the left
margin, presumably to confirm the transposition of the letters
'aw' in 'Alawys', which is indicated by the standard transposition